Musings of a Political Scientist

Human Anatomy

3D Human Anatomy by Bryan Brandenburg

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Human Anatomy

Human anatomy is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the adult human body. It is subdivided into gross anatomy and microscopic anatomy. Gross anatomy (also called topographical anatomy, regional anatomy, or anthropotomy) is the study of anatomical structures that can be seen by unaided vision. Microscopic anatomy is the study of minute anatomical structures assisted with microscopes, which includes histology (the study of the organisation of tissues), and cytology (the study of cells).

In some of its facets human anatomy is closesly related to embryology, comparative anatomy and comparitive embryology, through common roots in evolution.

The human body, like the bodies of all animals, consists of systems, that consist of organs, that consist of tissues, that consist of cells and connective tissue.

The history of anatomy has been characterized, over time, by a continually developing understanding of the functions of organs and structures in the body. Methods have also advanced dramatically, advancing from examination of animals through dissection of preserved cadavers (dead human bodies) to technologically complex techniques developed in the 20th century.

Major organ systems

  • Circulatory system: pumping and channeling blood to and from the body and lungs with heart, blood, and blood vessels.
  • Digestive system: digestion and processing food with salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, intestines, rectum, and anus.
  • Endocrine system: communication within the body using hormones made by endocrine glands such as the hypothalamus, pituitary or pituitary gland, pineal body or pineal gland, thyroid, parathyroids, and adrenals or adrenal glands
  • Integumentary system: skin, hair and nails
  • Lymphatic system: structures involved in the transfer of lymph between tissues and the blood stream, the lymph and the nodes and vessels that transport it including the Immune system: defending against disease-causing agents with leukocytes, tonsils, adenoids, thymus, and spleen
  • Muscular system: movement with muscles.
  • Nervous system: collecting, transferring and processing information with brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and nerves
  • Reproductive system: the sex organs, such as ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, mammary glands, testes, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate, and penis.
  • Respiratory system: the organs used for breathing, the pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, and diaphragm.
  • Skeletal system: structural support and protection with bones, cartilage, ligaments, and tendons.
  • Urinary system: kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra involved in fluid balance, electrolyte balance and excretion of urine.