Musings of a Political Scientist

All posts in Physics

3D Torus by Bryan Brandenburg
In geometry, a torus (pl. tori) is a surface of revolution generated by revolving a circle in three dimensional space about an axis coplanar with the circle... Read more

3D God's Eye Nebula by Bryan Brandenburg
Most religions agree that God is the Light, but they often fail to realize that the Sun produces over 99% of the light for our Solar System. Read more

3D Quark Particle Simulation

Categories: 3D Software, Quantum Physics
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3D Quark Particle Simulation by Bryan Brandenburg

This Applet is a playful simulation to create beautiful simulated quarks.

Click Screen, Drag and Move, Release, Click again.


Carbon 6 Atom

Categories: Atomic Physics, Chemistry, Nanotechnology
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Carbon 6 Atom by Bryan Brandenburg
Carbon occurs in all organic life and is the basis of organic chemistry. This nonmetal also has the interesting chemical property of being able to bond with itself and a wide variety of other elements, forming nearly ten million known compounds. Read more

Food Energy

The "Calorie" has become a common household term. Dietitians recommend, in cases of obesity, to reduce body weight by increasing exercise (energy expenditure) and reducing energy intake (consumption of food). Many governments require food manufacturers to label the energy content of their products, to help consumers control their energy intake. In Europe, manufacturers of prepackaged food must label the nutritional energy of their products in both kilocalories ("kcal") and kilojoules ("kJ"). In the United States, the equivalent mandatory labels display only "Calories" (when used with capitalized C, meaning kilocalories); an additional kilojoules figure is optional. The energy content of food is usually given on labels for 100 g and for a typical serving size.

The amount of food energy in a particular food could be measured by completely burning the dried food in a bomb calorimeter, a method known as direct calorimetry. However, the values given on food labels are not determined this way, because it overestimates the amount of energy that the human digestive system can extract, by also burning dietary fiber. Instead, standardized chemical tests and an analysis of the recipe are used to estimate the product's digestable constitutents (protein, carbohydrate, fat, etc.).

Oxidation and Food Energy
Food is oxidized after consumption. In oxidation by consumption, heat is released. Within the body, this heat is released as energy of metabolism. The rate of energy production is called the metabolic rate.

Other substances found in food (water, non-digestable fibre, minerals, vitamins) do not contribute to this calculated energy density.

Recommended daily energy intake values for young adults are: 2500 kcal/d (10 MJ/d, 120 W) for men and 2000 kcal/d (8 MJ/d, 100 W) for women. Children, sedentary and older people require less energy, physically active people more. The 100-120Watts is the average energy to power a human being at rest, equivalent to a 100-120 Watt light bulb.

Information Courtesy of Wikipedia Read more